Performs specialists in the field of psychology studies may be a correlation or a trial to test the hypotheses, and there is another method to test hypotheses in psychology is that using a set of statistical procedures in order to examine the researcher a new way of research relevant and that had been conducted essentially acknowledged the results of this is called method (style beyond the analysis) Meta- analysis technique or the collection of results across studies or meta-analysis, and through the application of this method, the results of several studies carried out in different places and by different researchers to make specialists can in the field of psychology various and diverse branches that and accurately measure the strength and stability or consistency of certain effects.
Its leads beyond the analysis to move or shift in emphasis from the emphasis on the individual studies to emphasize the multiple studies, it emphasizes the importance of the specific size of the effect, rather than emphasize the statistical significance of the individual studies. And that this shift in thinking has been termed (including thinking behind the analysis or analytical thinking metaphysician (Meta – analytic thinking. (
Its defined as: a statistical analysis for a wide range of results of multiple studies in order to reach the unification of the results. And Statistically combines the results of several studies on joint research hypotheses.
This method has been applied first began in the natural and medical sciences then applied specifically in the field of psychological research by a scientist Psychological Statistics (Karl Pearson) in 1904 in an attempt to overcome the problem of decreased statistical power Statistical power in samples of small-scale studies.
It was (Class Class) statistical contemporary first foundations for the use beyond the analysis, there is agreement that the contemporary Almond to this method, and as indicated by Oxford Dictionary, the use of the first term in a statistical sense was in 1976 by the scientific (Glass)
The overall objective beyond the analysis is to evaluate the size of the real impact on the contrary, the size of the smaller impact that is derived from a single study under a single specific set of assumptions and conditions.
This method that has been developed in a relatively recent time seemed increasingly used by repeating in psychology multiple branches.
The main benefits of this approach are the following:
1- Identify whether the results were more diverse than expected from diverse samples.
2- Circular Generalization studies on the community.
3- The ability to adjust the contrast between the studies between – study variation.
4- Include intermediate factors to explain the discrepancies.
5- Dealing with college information and the total number of research articles published each year (regarding studied variable.
6- It gathers several studies therefore be less affected by the results of intensive compared to what you do individual studies.
7- Makes it possible to identify whether there are biases in publishing.
The most prominent deficits and palaces in the method of Meta Analysis:
1- it is a source of bias that can not be controlled studies has included weak or inaccurate, leading to influence the results
2- Reliance on published studies only, so the unpublished studies will fall out of the account.
3-The Beyond the analysis may sometimes be implemented to achieve economic, social or political goals, which may lead to abuse of this method and then access to the inaccurate and misleading results
Finally, current research recommends departments of psychology in the Iraqi and Arab universities following:
1- Beyond the need to apply the style of analysis in the study of many psychological phenomena and on the level of master’s or doctoral thesis.
2- The introduction of this technique within the subject matter in psychological, educational, social science curriculum.